## Sunday, September 4, 2011

### In the driver's seat

So I have a basic implementation of newtonian movement worked out. But we're still controlling an object that eventually flies off into the distance. And once it's out of view, it's pretty unlikely that it will come back. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if we could keep track of it?

Yes, yes it would. So having worked out movement, I focused on the camera. I decided to start with two views. One from the cockpit, which tracks the rotation of the object, and the other the familiar chase camera, looking at the object from behind, and tracking the direction of movement.

The reason I made these decisions is that movement in three dimensions is pretty unintuitive, specially when you remove friction. Most space flight games get around this unintuitiveness by treating space as a giant pool. You can remain buoyant at any spot, but there's a constant friction that slows you down as soon as you stop your engines. This allows people to point themselves in the direction they want to go and fire the engines. Any transversal motion will eventually be slowed enough that they end up reaching their destination with a minimum of effort.

With newtonian physics, however, there's no meaning to the idea of slowing down. Slowing down with respect to what? Speed is wholly relative. Firing your engines in the direction you want to go leads you to shoot around your target. It is madness. I needed a way to recover some of the intuitiveness, without sacrificing the fun of being in space.

 Surprisingly, still images do a poor job of demonstrating motion.
The chase cam was my solution. Other games implement a chase view, but they waste it by keeping it aligned with the ship, so you're always watching your ship from behind. This is useful for shooting things, since weapons tend to be aligned with the front of the ship, but not so much for navigation. It's essentially the same as the cockpit view, only from outside the ship.

With my implementation, the player will see the direction they're actually moving in. If they want to head towards something, they have to align their objective with the center of this view. In the meantime, the ship is free to rotate any which way, and accelerating in different directions will shift the view. Ironically, racing games make a better use of the chase view than space flight games. For the most part you sit squarely behind the car, but you can notice when turning hard around corners or drifting that your car will turn while you keep looking in the direction that your car is still going in.

Still, shooting things is important. I can see how it would be quite distressing not to be able to see what you're shooting at, which is what the cockpit view is for. Eventually, helpful GUI elements will minimize the difficulty of getting from A to B when you don't have friction helping you along, but for a start the chase view should help.

Of course, before applying these views I had to populate the space somehow. A view from the cockpit in empty space would look completely static regardless of your movement. I decided to do two things. First, I draw a cube around the ship, which remains in a fixed orientation at all times. This let's you see how your orientation changes, but since you don't move around the cube but sit always in the middle, you can't see your translation. This is how skyboxes work, but since I don't have textures working yet green lines will have to do.

 So that's what those lines are for.
The second is, I actually start using all the infrastructure I'd been talking about before. During initialization I'm make a few different models (a sphere for 'asteroids', a piramid for the player), and store them in the cache. Then I create an entity for the player, and assign it the piramid model.

For the asteroids I do a little trick to get more variation. Based on the sphere model, I create new models which point to the same vertex buffers (where the sphere shape is stored in the video card), but add a scaling matrix to alter the size.

I make about fifty asteroids with random sizes and assign them random positions about the starting location for the player. Then during rendering I go through the list of entities, apply the scaling transformation and draw the result. Happily it works with very little additional fussing.

For the demo I only have the cockpit view working, which was pretty easy to implement by giving the camera the same reference frame as the player. It is available for download as usual: Framework-0.0.5r

Since it doesn't work on all machines just yet, I also created a short video of the demo.

So what's next? I should have the chase view working, and the possibility to switch between the two views. If I have the time I'll even throw in something special.